Estimate Numbers of Native Americans or Indians: 40 to 70 million. 

Numbers of Native Americans in United States and Canada:  2,475,956 (USA) 799,000 (Canada)

The 1960 United States Census count was 523,591. The 1970 figures were 792,730. In 1980, it was 1.3 million. The 1990 Census had 1.9 million people reporting their race as full-blooded American Indian. The Bureau of Indian Affairs says there are 1.2 million card-carrying Indians. Another 7 million claimed partial Native American ancestry on their taxes. That's an astonishing 1 in every 35 Americans. The numbers can't be right, and there are no best estimates. Most Sociology textbooks put the figure at 2 million, which is slightly less than 1% of the U.S. population.  The 2000 Census put the figure at 4.3 million (1.5% of 281 million persons in the United States), and this figure includes persons who reported their race as "American Indian or Alaska Native" with or without another racial category.  About 2.5 million (0.9%) listed only "American Indian or Alaska Native" and 1.8 million as combined with an additional race.
While there are only 341 federally recognized Native American tribes residing in the lower 48 states, there are approximately 557 different tribes or "bands" in the lower 48 states, at least 200 sizeable Alaskan villages, and 40,000 Native Hawaiians. Source: Tom O'Connor PhD. and Amy Willis, North Carolina Wesleyan College, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/soc/355lect12.htm (7-7-2006)

- Indian Tribes in United States and Canada
- We the People, Native American - U.S. Census 2000
- American Indian and Alaskan Natives Population Report
- Canada First Nations Report on Population 2001sa
- Native American Population in Utah
Excellent Link in the Native American Census
- Tribal Government Liaison Handbook on the Census 2000

Numbers of Native Americans or Indians in Latin America: 39,442,000 million
(Countries with more than a million): Mexico (12m.), Peru (10.2m.), Bolivia (4.2m.), Guatemala (4.2m.), Ecuador (3.34m.), Chile (1m.).
(Countries with less than a million): Argentina (398t.), Belize (30t.), Brazil (243t.), Colombia (547t.), Costa Rica (32t.), El Salvador (300t.), Guyana (28t.), Honduras (245t.), Nicaragua (152t.), Panama (126t.), Paraguay (67t.), Surinam (10t.), and Venezuela (331t.) (t.=thousand).

- Indian Tribes in Latin America
- Latin American Indian Population - Up date

Problems with Statistics regarding Native Americans or Indians: In some countries in Latin America, there are no census data for Native people, in others, the census include complex criteria to determine who is Native. Until few years ago, some countries denied the existence of Native people in their territories and in many cases, Native people denied their origin due to the pressure of  society who consider them "uncivilized". In my opinion the estimated numbers are very low, in one of my presentations, I further explain my position. Source: America Indigena (1-2-1992)
- Latin American Indian Population - Up date
- A Paper About Latin American Indian Populations (Spanish)
- Indians in Latina America, Population (Spanish)


WASHINGTON (AP) One in four American Indians lives in Oklahoma or California, according to the 2000 Census, which reported that 4.1 million people said they were all or part "American Indian or Alaska Native."

In the 1990 Census nearly 2 million people checked that box, though figures are not directly comparable because of differences in the way race and ethnicity data are tallied.

The Census Bureau used a massive advertising and outreach effort to improve its American Indian count, especially on isolated and hard-to-reach reservations. For many tribal governments, results are crucial to secure accurate financing from the federal government, said Louis Tutt, the Navajo Nation's Census liaison.

Cherokee and Navajo were by far the tribes most often checked off on forms

The 2000 head count found 298,197 people who were all or part Navajo, a total that includes those people living off Navajo land.

"We think we have reached 100% of the people for the first time," Tutt said by telephone from tribal headquarters in Window Rock, Ariz. "The result of the count is very satisfying."

Among tribal groupings, only the Cherokee, numbering 729,533, surpassed the Navajo. Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller said that while his Tahlequah, Okla.-based government took an active role during Census-taking, it thinks its population was undercounted.

"We're located in the hills, with rural roads," Miller said. "Lots of times you can go down these rural roads and not know that there's dozens of houses in those woods."

The Census Bureau has considered releasing a second overall population count based on adjusted data, which many Democrats say would offer a more accurate count of minorities. But last year the bureau twice recommended against adjusted data.

The bureau cited much lower undercount rates among minority groups on American Indian reservations, for instance among its reasons to stick with the raw head count for redrawing political lines and distributing federal funds.

The latest report summarized data previously released by the Census Bureau. It shows that 40% of those who selected American Indian or Alaska Native took advantage of a first-ever option to check off more than one race on their form.

Because of a long history of intermarriage between American Indians and whites, demographers had predicted that American Indians would have one of the highest percentages of people who were multiracial.

The option especially boosted the Cherokee total, of which nearly 60% also selected another race or tribal grouping.

"Out in Indian country, there's an expression that everybody has a Cherokee grandmother," said Stanford University demographer Matthew Snipp.

Source: USA TODAY, February 13, 2002

North American Indian Tribes

Map/Utah American Indian Reservations

Mexico and Central American Indian Tribes

South American Indian Tribes


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