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MAP: American Indians in United States by 1492

MAP: American Indian Land Cessions Since 1784 Until Today

MAP: American Indians in United States Today

MAP: American Indian Population Percentages in United States

Tool Kit About American Indians and U.S. History (Excellent tool)


THE CLOVIS CULTURE: The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. The Clovis culture appears around 11,500–11,000 uncal (uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present), at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest that this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas. Clovis Point Picture, Paleoindian Map.

THE FOLSOM TRADITION: The Folsom Complex is a name given by archaeologists to a specific Paleo-Indian archaeological culture that occupied much of central North America. The term was first used in 1927 by Jesse Dade Figgins, director of the Colorado Museum of Natural History. Folsom Point Pictures

THE MONTE VERDE ISSUE: (Chile): Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to 14,800 years BP. This dating adds to the evidence showing that the human settlement of the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years. South America Indians Map
- Monte Verde by Tom Dillehay

CANADA FIRST NATIONS: The histories of the First Nations peoples are fundamentally connected to the physical identity of Canada. The vastness and variety of Canada's climates, ecology, vegetation, fauna, and landforms separate, join, and define ancient peoples, as implicitly as cultural or linguistic divisions. Canada is surrounded north, east, and west with coastline and since the last ice age Canada has consisted of several distinct forest regions. Adaptability is the essential component for survival within these demanding environments. Historic geographical models and population estimates are supplemented by oral histories, archaeological and anthropological evidence to derive knowledge of First Nations dwellings, food sources, and technology. Understanding how a people survived within their environment provides a greater insight into their history. Sub-Arctic Arctic Canadian Shield Atlantic & Gulf Region Western Cordillera Plateau Great (Interior) Plains Great Lakes & St Lawrence Lowlands A History of the Native People in Canada Volume 1, A History of the Native People in Canada Volume 2, Canadian Indians Map

MOUNDS BUILDERS CULTURE: Mound Builders, were people who built mounds in E central North America, concentrating in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, from the early 6th cent. to historic times. Probably ancestors of Native Americans found in that region by Europeans, they were politically diverse and developed distinct cultures. Artifacts indicate fine stone carving, pottery making, and weaving, as well as widespread trade in copper, mica, and obsidian. The mounds vary in size (1–100 acres/0.4–40 hectares), shape (geometric or animal effigy, e.g., Serpent Mound in Ohio), and purpose (burial, fortress, or totem. Excellent Satellite Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999.

POVERTY POINT: Poverty Point culture is an archaeological culture that corresponds to an ancient group of Indigenous peoples who inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf coast from about 2200 BC - 700 BC. Archeologists have identified more than 100 sites as belonging to this mound builder culture, which also formed a large trading network throughout the eastern part of what is now the United States. Satellite Picture (Poverty Point) View Reconstruction, Excellent Satellite Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999

ADENA CULTURE: The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, pottery, artistic works and extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast. Satellite Picture (Criel Mound) Satellite Picture (Serpent Mound) Adena Map, Excellent Satellite Picturesby James Q Jacobs , 1999

HOPEWELL CULTURE: The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BC to 500 AD, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System. Satellite Picture (Cahokia) Cahokia ReconstructionSatellite Picture (Etowah) Etowah Reconstruction  Hopewell Map, Excellent Satellite Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999

ANAZASI CULTURE or ANCESTRAL PUEBLOANS: A·na·sa·zi noun plural Anasazi were a group of Native American people inhabiting southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and Arizona from about A.D. 100 and whose descendants are the present-day Pueblo peoples. Anasazi culture includes an early Basket Maker phase and a later Pueblo phase marked by the construction of cliff dwellings and by expert craftsmanship in weaving and pottery. Excellent Satellite Pictures. More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999. Satellite Picture (Chaco Canyon) Chaco Canyon Reconstruction, Satellite Picture (Aztec Ruins) The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

CHACO CANYON: Chaco Canyon was a major center of ancestral Puebloan culture. It was a hub of ceremony, trade, and administration for the prehistoric Four Corners area - unlike anything before or since. Chaco is remarkable for its monumental public and ceremonial buildings, and its distinctive architecture. Building construction, and creating the associated Chacoan roads, ramps, dams, and mounds, required a great deal of well organized and skillful planning, designing, resource gathering, and construction. Excellent Satellite Pictures. More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999. Satellite Picture (Chaco Canyon) Chaco Canyon Reconstruction, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

CHIMNEY ROCK: Housing approximately 2,000 ancient Pueblo Indians between A.D. 925 and 1125, the settlement included a Great House Pueblo with round ceremonial rooms, known as kivas, and 36 ground-floor rooms. A grizzly bear jaw found in one of the rooms when excavated suggested a reverence for the animal, and modern Chaco oral history suggests that the Bear clan originated in the Chimney Rock area.  Satellite Picture, Chimney Rock, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration, More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999.

AZTECS RUINS: The Aztec Ruins National Monument preserves Ancestral Puebloan structures in North-Western New Mexico, United States, located close to the town of Aztec and Northeast of Farmington, near the Animas River. Salmon Ruins and Heritage Park, with more Puebloan structures, lies a short distance to the south, just west of Bloomfield near the San Juan River. The buildings date to the 11th to 13th centuries, and the misnomer attributing them to the Aztec civilization can be traced back to early American settlers in the mid-19th century.  Satellite Picture, Aztec RuinsThe Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration, More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999.

GRAND QUIVIRA: The Gran Quivira unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument is the biggest of the three units at 611 acres. Prior to Spanish contact, Gran Quivira was a vast city with multiple pueblos, and kivas. During the excavation, an older Circular Pueblo was discovered. First contact with the Spanish probably happened in 1583 with the arrival of Don Antonio de Espejo who mentions a settlement that sounds very similar to Gran Quivira. Satellite Picture,   More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999, Grand Quivira, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

CROW CANYON ARCHEOLOGICAL CENTER: Pueblo Indians' historical perspectives are shaped by their deep cultural heritage, kept alive through oral tradition. Archaeologists' understanding of Pueblo history derives primarily from the application of the scientific method. In this series of videos, Pueblo people and archaeologists discuss aspects of Pueblo history and culture from their different—but often complementary—perspectives. More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999, Satellite Picture, Crow Canyon Ruins, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration,

MESA VERDE: The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting, gathering, and subsistence farming of crops such as corn, beans, and squash. They built the mesa's first pueblos sometime after 650, and by the end of the 12th century, they began to construct the massive cliff dwellings for which the park is best known. By 1285, following a period of social and environmental instability driven by a series of severe and prolonged droughts, they abandoned the area and moved south to locations in Arizona and New Mexico, including Rio Chama, Pajarito Plateau, and Santa Fe. Excellent Satellite Pictures. More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999. Satellite Picture, Mesa Verde, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

SINAGUA: Colton also distinguished between two different Sinagua cultures. The Northern Sinagua were loosely centered in the highlands around Flagstaff, with Walnut Canyon National Monument, Wupatki National Monument, and Elden Pueblo the best-known publicly accessible sites. The Southern Sinagua inhabited lower elevations across the Verde Valley of central Arizona; Montezuma Castle National Monument, Montezuma Well, Tuzigoot National Monument, Palatki and Honanki Archaeological Sites, and the V-Bar-V Petroglyph Site are notable localities open to the public.  More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999, Satellite Picture, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

ACOMA: Pueblo people are believed to have descended from the Anasazi, Mogollon, and other ancient peoples. These influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, and artistry of the Acoma. In the 13th century, the Anasazi abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval. For upwards of two centuries, migrations occurred in the area. The Acoma Pueblo emerged by the thirteenth century. This early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the United States.   More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999, Satellite Picture, Acoma City, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

TAOS: Most archeologists believe that the Taos Indians, along with other Pueblo Indians, settled along the Rio Grande after migrating south from the Four Corners region. The dwellings of that region were inhabited by the Ancestral Puebloans. A long drought in the area in the late 13th century may have caused them to move to the Rio Grande, where the water supply was more dependable. More Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999,  Satellite Picture, The Southwest Ancient Map. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration.

HOHOKAM CULTURE: Hohokam, was an ancient agricultural culture of S Arizona (c.300–1200 A.D.). The Hohokam are noted for their extensive irrigation systems but also built sunken ball-courts, pyramidal mounds, and other structures similar to those of central Mexico. Most archaeologists believe that Hohokam culture evolved from local antecedents, although they did trade with more southerly groups. Their fate and possible ancestry of the Pima and Tohono O'Odham (Papago) is widely disputed. Satellite Picture () Irrigation Cannals. Satellite Picture (Pueblo Grande) Satellite Picture (Hohokan Irrigation Cannals) Hohokan Reconstruction, The Southwest Ancient Map

MOGOLLON CULTURE: Mogollon noun. A Native American culture flourishing from the 2nd century B.C. to the 13th century A.D. in southeast Arizona and southwest New Mexico, and Northern MExico, especially noted for its development of pottery. The Southwest Ancient Map. Satellite Picture (Paquime/Casas Grandes) Paquime Reconstruction

FREMONT CULTURE: Fremont is the name given to diverse groups of Native Americans that inhabited the western Colorado Plateau and the eastern Great Basin from 400 A.D. to 1350 A.D. Fremont Indians lived along streambeds and raised their families in this desolate land several hundred years longer than the descendents of European emigrants have lived in America. The barren, semi-arid land where the Fremont Indians lived contains areas of spectacular beauty. Satellite Picture, Canyon Picture, Excellent Pictures by James Q. Jacobs, 1999. Fremont Indians Map

SALADO INDIANS: The Salado Culture represents a mixture of Mogollon, Hohokam and Anasazi peoples. The Hohokam and Mogollon had already been interacting in this area for some time, but it was not until the first influx of Anasazi peoples, probably originating from the Little Colorado area, that this mixture of peoples began to develop its own distinct character. This occured around 1100 AD, and is evidenced in the appearance at this time of black-on-white pottery types. Satellite PictureLower Cliff Dwelling, Salado Pottery, Salado Indians Map

THE PUEBLOAN PEOPLE: The Modern Pueblo peoples are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who have in common their style of living in towns constructed of adobe, stone and other local materials; their buildings are constructed as complex apartments with numerous rooms, often built in strategic defensive positions. The Pueblo peoples speak languages from several different groups and are also divided culturally by their kinship systems and agricultural practices, although all cultivate varieties of maize. Excellent Pictures on North American Cultures. Collection of Native American Pictures. National Museum of American Indian ExhibitionMore Pictures by James Q Jacobs , 1999, Edward Curtis Collection, Map of Indian Groups in United States. Ancestral Puebloans Immigration, Pueblo Indians Map. Acoma, The Oldest City in USA

500 NATIONS: (Indian Tribes Map) The first people to discover the New World, or Western Hemisphere, are believed to have walked across a “land bridge” from Siberia to Alaska, an isthmus since broken by the Bering Strait. From Alaska, these ancestors of the Native Americans spread through what became known as North, Central, and South America. Anthropologists have placed these crossings at between 18,000 and 14,000 B.C., but evidence found in 1967 near Puebla, Mex., indicates people may have reached there as early as 35,000-40,000 years ago. There were more 500 Indian Nations in North America before Columbus. Excellent Pictures on North American Cultures. Collection of Native American Pictures. National Museum of American Indian Exhibition. Edward Curtis Collection, Map of Indian Groups in United States.

AMERICAN INDIAN POPULATION ESTIMATES: The population figure for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus has proven difficult to establish in exact numbers. Scholars rely on archaeological data and written records from settlers from the Old World. Most scholars writing at the end of the 19th century estimated the pre-Columbian population as low as 10 million; by the end of the 20th century most scholars gravitate to a middle estimate of around 50 million, with some historians arguing for 100 million or more. Contact with the New World led to the European colonization of the Americas, in which millions of immigrants from the Old World eventually settled the New World. Hispaniola Indian Population Decline, Mexico Indian Population Decline, Current (2011) American Indian Population Share Map.

THE POWATHAN WAR, 1610: The Anglo-Powhatan Wars were three wars fought between English settlers of the Virginia Colony, and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in the early seventeenth century. The First War started in 1610, and ended in a peace settlement in 1614. Another war between the two powers lasted from 1622 to 1626. The third War lasted from 1644 until 1646, and ended when Opechancanough was captured and killed. History of Jamestown

THE KING PHILLIP'S WAR, 1675: The war was the single greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth century Puritan New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of European settlement in North America in proportion to the population. In the space of little more than a year, twelve of the region's towns were destroyed and many more damaged, the colony's economy was all but ruined, and its population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Native American warriors. Excellent Lecture on the War, History of Plymouth.

THE PUEBLO REVOLT, 1680: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 — also known as Popé's Rebellion — was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico. The Pueblo Revolt killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish returned and were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition. The Pueblo Revolt Lecture, History of the Pueblo People. History of the Southwest.

THE PONTIAC REBELLION 1763: The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans, offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict. Pontiac Rebellion Video

TECUMSEH AND THE WAR OF 1812: Tecumseh was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and became an ally of Britain in the War of 1812. Tecumseh's Vision Video

JOHN ROSS 1790-1866: (October 3, 1790 – August 1, 1866), also known as Koo-wi-s-gu-wi (meaning in Cherokee a "Little White Bird"), was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828–1866, serving longer in this position than any other person. Described as the Moses of his people,[1] Ross influenced the Indian nation through such tumultuous events as the relocation to Indian Territory and the American Civil War. The Trail of Tears Video.

BLACK HAWK WAR, 1832: The Black Hawk War was a conflict, between the United States and Native Americans, led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader. The war erupted soon after, Black Hawk and a group of Sauks, Meskwakis, and Kickapoos, known as the "British Band", crossed the Mississippi River, into the US state of Illinois, from Iowa Indian Territory in April 1832. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was apparently hoping to avoid bloodshed while, resettling on tribal land, that had been ceded to the United States, in the disputed 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. The Black Hawk War Video

OSCEOLA AND THE SEMINOLE WARS, 1835: The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars. The Second Seminole War, often referred to as the Seminole War, is regarded as "the longest and most costly of the Indian conflicts of the United States. The Seminole War Video

THE WEST, GOLD RUSH OF 1849: The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a period in American history which began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought—mostly by sailing ships and covered wagons—some 300,000 gold-seekers (called "forty-niners", as in "1849") to California. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush also attracted some tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia and Asia. Satellite Picture (Sutter's Mills) Sutter's Mills, 49's Miners.

MANUELITO, 1818-1893: Manuelito was a prominent Navajo leader who rallied his nation against the oppression of the United States military. For several years he led a group of warriors in resisting federal efforts to forcibly remove the Navajo people to Bosque Redondo, New Mexico via the Long Walk in 1864. After being relocated to Bosque Redondo, Manuelito was among the leaders who signed the 1868 treaty, ending a period of imprisonment in United States government internment camps and establishing a reservation for the Navajo. The Long Walk of the Navajos Video

CHIEF JOSEPH 1840-1904: Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, Hinmatóowyalahtqit in Americanist orthography, popularly known as Chief Joseph or Young Joseph (March 3, 1840 – September 21, 1904), succeeded his father Tuekakas (Chief Joseph the Elder) as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe indigenous to the Wallowa Valley in northeastern Oregon, in the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Nez Perse and Chief Joseph Video

SITTING BULL, 1831-1890: Sitting Bull, c. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him, at a time when authorities feared that he would join the Ghost Dance movement. Sitting Bull Biography Video

CRAZY HORSE, 1840-1877: (Lakota: Tašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota Orthography, literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy"; c. 1840 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the United States Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party to victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876. Crazy Horse Biography Video

CAPTAIN JACK, 1872-1873: Kintpuash, also known as Captain Jack (c.1837 – October 3, 1873), was a chief of the Modoc tribe of California and Oregon. He led a band from the Klamath Reservation to return to their lands in California, where they resisted return. From 1872 to 1873, their small force made use of the lava beds, holding off more numerous United States Army forces for months in the Modoc War. The Modoc War Video

INDIAN WARS, BLACK HILLS GOLD RUSH, 1879:The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States. It began in 1874 following the Custer Expedition and reached a peak in 1876-77.  In the 1860s, Roman Catholic missionary Father De Smet is reported to have seen Sioux Indians carrying gold which they told him came from the Black Hills. Prior to the Gold Rush, the Black Hills were used by Native Americans (primarily bands of Sioux but others also ranged through the area). The United States government recognized the Black Hills as belonging to the Sioux by the Treaty of Laramie in 1868. Despite being within Indian territory, and therefore off-limits, white Americans were increasingly interested in the gold-mining possibilities of the Black Hills. Satellite Picture (Black Hills)  Homestead Mine

GERONIMO, 1850-1886: Geronimo (Mescalero-Chiricahua: Goyathlay "the one who yawns"; June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe. From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Chihenne, the Chokonen and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids and commit widespread attacks in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Geronimo Biography Video

WOUNDED KNEE, 1890: On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over the rifle escalated, and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their fellow soldiers. The Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking soldiers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. Wounded Knee 1890Wounded Knee, We Shall Remain

OCCUPATION OF ALCATRAZ (1969): The Occupation of Alcatraz was an occupation of Alcatraz Island by 89 American Indians who called themselves Indians of All Tribes (IOAT).[1] The Alcatraz Occupation lasted for nineteen months, from November 20, 1969, to June 11, 1971, and was forcibly ended by the U.S. government.

TRAIL OF BROKEN TREATIES (1972): The Trail of Broken Treaties was a cross-country protest that was staged in the autumn of 1972 in the United States by American Indian and First Nations organizations. Designed to bring national attention to American Indian issues, such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housing, it brought to the national capital the largest gathering ever of American Indians presenting their hopes.
The caravan began on the west coast of North America in October, with protesters traveling by car, bus, and van. It reached the national capital of Washington, D.C. in early November (the week before the day of the presidential election). This was the largest gathering ever in the capital of American Indians wanting to meet with government to discuss their needs and negotiate a new relationship.

WOUNDED KNEE INCIDENT(1973): The Wounded Knee incident began on February 27, 1973, when approximately 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The protest followed the failure of an effort of the Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO) to impeach tribal president Richard Wilson, whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents. Additionally, protesters attacked the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Native American people and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations.

500 Nations Videos:
- 500 Nations Episode 1: Wounded Knee Legacy and the Ancestors
- 500 Nations Episode 2: Mexico
- 500 Nations Episode 3: Clash of Culture
- 500 Nations Episode 4: Invasion of the Coast
- 500 Nations Episode 5: Cauldron of War
- 500 Nations Episode 6: Removal
- 500 Nations Episode 7: Road Across the Plains
- 500 Nations Episode 8: Attack on Culture

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE PEOPLE: In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of numerous distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups, and many of these groups survive intact today as sovereign nations. Map of Indian Groups in United States.

US AMERICAN INDIAN HEROES: Deganawida (13th Century); Hiawhata (13th Century); Pope (1630-1680); Powhatan (????-1618) Metacom/King Philip (1638-1676); Pontiac (1720-1769); Black Hawk (1767-1838); Tecumseh (1768-1813); Sacagawea (1788-1812); Osceola (1804-1838); Walkara (1808-1855); Red Cloud (1822-1909); Geronimo (1829-1909); Sitting Bull (1831-1890); Captain Jack (1837-1873); Chief Joseph (1840-1904); Crazy Horse (1840-1877)

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE AMERICAS: The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives.




Apology Official Documents Written in North America:

- Canada Official Government Apology to American Indians in 2004

- US Official Government Apology to American Indians in 2009

- US Official Government Apology to American Indians in 2010 (page 45)


At first, these people were hunters, using flint weapons and tools. In Mexico, about 7000-6000 B.C., they founded farming cultures and developed crops, such as corn and squash. Eventually, they created complex civilizations—the Olmec, Toltec, Aztec, and Maya and, in South America, the Inca. Carbon-14 tests show that humans lived about 8000 B.C. near what are now Front Royal, VA, Kanawha, WV, and Dutchess Quarry, NY. The Hopewell Culture, based on farming, flourished about 1000 B.C.; remains of it are seen today in large mounds in Ohio and other states.

On the other hand, Native Americans believe on the Creation of the World and the Indian people.  Many not different stories of the creation of Indian people are handle down to the new generations.  Native Americans do not believe in the Bering Strait theory and even some of us consider that theory very offensive. 

Norsemen (Norwegian Vikings sailing out of Iceland and Greenland) are credited by most scholars with being the first Europeans to discover America, with at least 5 voyages occurring about A.D. 1000 to areas they called Helluland, Markland, Vinland—possibly what are known today as Labrador, Nova Scotia or Newfoundland, and New England.
Indian Tribes in United States and Canada

HAWAIIAN NATIVE PEOPLE: To understand Hawaiian native history and culture, one must understand the greater Polynesian phenomenon. Hawaii is the apex of the Polynesian Triangle, a region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by three island groups: Hawaii, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and Aotearoa (New Zealand). The many island cultures within the Polynesian Triangle share similar languages derived from a proto-Malayo-Polynesian language used in Southeast Asia 5000 years ago. Polynesians also share fundamentally similar cultural traditions, arts, religion, sciences. Anthropologists believe that all Polynesians have a common connection to a single proto-culture established in the South Pacific by migrant Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) people. Excellent Pictures

Everybody knows who Christopher Columbus was, but very few know the name of the first Native who welcomed Columbus. to the Americas. The main objective of the "Amauta" Info Website is to educate people about the little known history of the America's Indigenous people.

The President of the United States, Barack Obama said:
"America's journey has been marked both by bright times of progress and dark moments of injustice for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Since the birth of America, they have contributed immeasurably to our country and our heritage, distinguishing themselves as scholars, artists, entrepreneurs, and leaders in all aspects of our society. Native Americans have also served in the United States Armed Forces with honor and distinction, defending the security of our Nation with their lives. Yet, our tribal communities face stark realities, including disproportionately high rates of poverty, unemployment, crime, and disease. These disparities are unacceptable, and we must acknowledge both our history and our current challenges if we are to ensure that all of our children have an equal opportunity to pursue the American dream. From upholding the tribal sovereignty recognized and reaffirmed in our Constitution and laws to strengthening our unique nation-to- nation relationship, my Administration stands firm in fulfilling our Nation's commitments.

President of USA Barack Obama on October 29, 2010
National American Indian Heritage Month Proclamation

The President of the United States, George W. Bush said:
"The strength of our Nation comes from its people.  As the early inhabitants of this great land, the native peoples of North America played a unique role in the shaping of our Nation's history and culture...I call on all Americans to learn more about the history and heritage of the Native peoples of this great land.  Such actions reaffirm our appreciation and respect for their traditions and way of life and can help to preserve an important part of our culture for generations yet to come."

President of USA George W. Bush on November 19, 2001
National American Indian Heritage Month Proclamation

The President of the United States, William J. Clinton said:
"So much of who we are today comes from who you have been for long time. Long before others came to the shores there were powerful and sophisticated cultures and societies here--yours. Because of your ancestors, democracy existed here long before the Constitution was drafted and ratified...I believe in your rich heritage and in our common destiny.  What you have done to retain your identity, your dignity and your faith in the face of often immeasurable obstacles is profoundly moving--an example of the enduring strength of the human spirit.""

President of USA Williams J. Clinton on April 29, 1994
From the Book: Native Time written by Lee Francis, pp. 328-329



TIMELINE from PBS - The West (Before Columbus to 1500)


Map of Indian Groups in United States

Pueblos Originarios de America Excellent Spanish Site


Christopher Columbus (1492) *Biography

Alavaro Nunez Cabea de Vaca (1528-1536)  *Biography

Hernando de Soto (1539-1543)  *Biography

Fransisco de Coronado (1540-1542)  *Biography

Juan de Onate (1598)  *Biography

North America Spanish Exploration

Spanish Viceroyalties Maps  *Information

The Columbian Exchange  *Information


Anacaona, 1503 (Haiti), Hatuey, 1511 (Cuba), Enriquillo, 1520 (Dominican Republic), Cuahtemoc, 1521 (Mexico), Nicarao, 1522 (Nicaragua), Urraca, 1523 (Panama), Tecun-Uman, 1523 (Guatemala), Atlacatl, 1524 (El Salvador), Ruminahui, 1534 (Ecuador), Lempira, 1535 (Honduras), Lambare, 1536 (Paraguay), Caupolican, 1550 (Chile), Guaicapuro, 1560 (Venezuela), Juan Calchaqui, 1560 (Argentina), Garabito, 1561 (Costa Rica), Abayuba, 1573 (Uruguay), Calarca, 1600 (Colombia), Camarao and Clarita, 1614 (Brazil), Tupac Amaru and Micaela Bastidas, 1780 (Peru), Tupac Catari and Bartolina Sisa, 1780 (Bolivia), United States American Indians 


TIMELINE from PBS - The West (From 1500 to 1650)

It is estimated that at the time of first European contact, North and South America was inhabited by more than 90 million people (some said 120 million): about 10 million in America north of present-day Mexico; 30 million in Mexico; 11 million in Central America; 445,000 in the Caribbean islands; 30 million in the South American Andean region; and 9 million in the remainder of South America. These population figures are a rough estimate (some authorities cite much lower figures); exact figures are impossible to ascertain. When colonists began keeping records, the Native American populations had been drastically reduced by war, famine, forced labor, and epidemics of diseases introduced through contact with Europeans.

As early Europeans first stepped ashore in what they considered the “New World”—whether in San Salvador (West Indies), Roanoke Island (North Carolina), or Chaleur Bay (New Brunswick)—they usually were welcomed by the peoples indigenous to the Americas. Native Americans seemed to regard their lighter-complexioned visitors as something of a marvel, not only for their dress, beards, and winged ships but even more for their technology—steel knives and swords, fire-belching arquebus (a portable firearm of the 15th and 16th centuries) and cannon, mirrors, hawkbells and earrings, copper and brass kettles, and other items unusual to the way of life of Native Americans.

“We came here to serve God, and also to get rich,” announced a member of the entourage of Spanish explorer and conqueror Hernán Cortés. Both agendas of 16th-century Spaniards, the commercial and the religious, needed the Native Americans themselves in order to be successful. The Spanish conquistadors and other adventurers wanted the land and labor of the Native Americans; the priests and friars laid claim to their souls. Ultimately, both programs were destructive to many indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first robbed them of their freedom and, in many cases, their lives; the second deprived them of their culture.

Contrary to many stereotypes, however, many 16th-century Spaniards agonized over the ethics of conquest. Important Spanish jurists and humanists argued at length over the legality of depriving the Native Americans of their land and coercing them to submit to Spanish authority. For the Native Americans, however, these ethical debates did little good.

In 1492 the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and Andean South America were among the most densely populated regions of the hemisphere. Yet, within a span of several generations, each experienced a cataclysmic population decline. The culprit, to a large extent, was microbial infection: European-brought diseases such as smallpox, pulmonary ailments, and gastrointestinal disorders, all of which had been unknown in the Americas during the pre-Columbian period. Native Americans were immunologically vulnerable to this invisible conqueror.

The destruction was especially visible in Latin America, where great masses of susceptible individuals were congregated in cities such as Tenochtitlán and Cuzco, not to mention the innumerable towns and villages dotting the countryside. More than anything else, it was the appalling magnitude of these deaths from disease that prompted the vigorous Spanish debate over the morality of conquest.

As the indigenous population in the Caribbean plummeted, Spaniards resorted to slave raids on the mainland of what is now Florida to bolster the work force. When the time came that this, too, proved insufficient, they took to importing West Africans to work the cane fields and silver mines.

Those Native Americans who did survive were often assigned, as an entire village or community to a planter or mine operator to whom they would owe all their services. The encomienda system, as it came to be known, amounted to virtual slavery. This, too, broke the spirit and health of the indigenous peoples, making them all the more vulnerable to the diseases brought by the Europeans.

Death from microbial infection was probably not as extensive in the Canadian forest, where most of the indigenous peoples lived as migratory hunter-gatherers. Village farmers, such as the Huron north of Lake Ontario, did, however, suffer serious depopulation in waves of epidemics that may have been triggered by Jesuit priests and their lay assistants, who had established missions in the area.

Statistics of health, education, unemployment rates, and income levels continue to show Native Americans as disadvantaged compared to the general population of North America. In the 1980s U.S. government policies have led to budget cuts for social and welfare services on the reservations. However, according to the United States Census Bureau, the Native American population in the United States rose more than 20 percent between 1980 and 1990. Pride in Native American heritage has survived as well. On many reservations, tribal languages and religious ceremonies are enjoying renewed vigor. Traditional arts and crafts, such as Pueblo pottery and Navajo weaving, continue to be practiced, and some contemporary Native American artists of North America, such as Fritz Scholder and R. C. Gorman, have successfully adapted European styles to their paintings and prints of Native American subjects. The strength of the Native American narrative tradition can be felt in the poetry and novels of the Native American writer N. Scott Momaday, who won a Pulitzer Prize in fiction for his House Made of Dawn (1969). Other prestigious contemporary Native American writers of North America include Vine Deloria, best known for his indictment of U.S. policy toward Native Americans in Custer Died for Your Sins (1969) and Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties (1974); novelists James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko; and William Least Heat-Moon, author of the widely popular Blue Highways: A Journey into America (1983), an account of his travels in the United States.
Statistics on Native Americans in USA, Census 2000


1492-1787: Tribal Independence
- French Indian Wars (Seven Years War in 1763)
- The Iroquois and the British agreements
- The King proclaimed the liberty of Indian Nations and their properties
1787-1828: Agreement Between Equals
- Indian Tribes as Foreign Nations
- Militarily, Indian Nations were more powerful
- 1790, the Congress prohibited whites to obtaining Indian lands
- 1793, Non-Indian were prohibited from setting on Indian lands
- The invasion of white settlers started

1828-1887: Relocations of Indian Nations
- Pte. Andrew Jackson "The Jackson Era" and the removal of Indian Nations
- 1830, Indian Removal Act
- Gold in California and the Black Hills
- 1871, No more treaties with Indian Nations (400 treaties)

1887-1934: Allotment and Assimilation
- Policy for taking more Indian lands (From 150 million to 50 million acres)
- "Acculturation" of Indian Nations. "Take the Indian out and leave the man"
- GAA General Allotment Act or Dawes Act

1934-1953: Indian reorganization Act
- John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs
- No interference on Indian Religion
- IRA, Indian Reorganization Act or Wheeler and Howard Act
- The first policy in 100 years not undermining the status of Indians

1953-1968: Termination Act
- 1949, the Hoover Commission recognized "Indian Assimilation"
- They took funding from Indian Nations
- 1953, A total of 109 Tribes were affected with Resolution # 108

- Pte. Lyndon Johnson and the "Freedom of Choice and Self-determination"
- Pte. Richard Nixon denounced the termination era and ended it
- Pte. Ronald Reagan and "Self-Determination Act"



Estimate Numbers of Native Americans or Indians: 40 to 70 million. 

Numbers of Native Americans in United States and Canada:  2,475,956 (USA) 799,000 (Canada)

- Indian Tribes in United States and Canada
- We the People, Native American - U.S. Census 2000
- American Indian and Alaskan Natives Population Report
- Canada First Nations Report on Population 2001
- Native American Population in Utah
Excellent Link in the Native American Census
- Tribal Government Liaison Handbook on the Census 2000

Numbers of Native Americans or Indians in Latin America: 39,442,000 million
(Countries with more than a million): Mexico (12m.), Peru (10.2m.), Bolivia (4.2m.), Guatemala (4.2m.), Ecuador (3.34m.), Chile (1m.).
(Countries with less than a million): Argentina (398t.), Belize (30t.), Brazil (243t.), Colombia (547t.), Costa Rica (32t.), El Salvador (300t.), Guyana (28t.), Honduras (245t.), Nicaragua (152t.), Panama (126t.), Paraguay (67t.), Surinam (10t.), and Venezuela (331t.) (t.=thousand).
- Indian Tribes in Latin America
- Latin American Indian Population - Up date

Problems with Statistics regarding Native Americans or Indians: In some countries in Latin America, there are no census data for Native people, in others, the census include complex criteria to determine who is Native. Until few years ago, some countries denied the existence of Native people in their territories and in many cases, Native people denied their origin due to the pressure of  society who consider them "uncivilized". In my opinion the estimated numbers are very low, in one of my presentations, I further explain my position. Source: America Indigena (1-2-1992)
- Latin American Indian Population - Up date
- A Paper About Latin American Indian Populations (Spanish)
- Indians in Latina America, Population (Spanish)

Links on Important Documents:


Sources: Most of the sources in this page come from Wikipedia